Research supports the fact that online learning can be effective for learners in a variety of ways. However, it does depend on how that online learning is designed, taught and supported. The VLN Primary use research-based practices, along with decades of experience, to provide effective learning for students.

Our research based documents:

(research that we have directly contributed to)

NZ research based documents:

(research about online learning in NZ, some written or contributed to by us)

Kwok-Wing Lai (2017) Pedagogical practices of NetNZ teachers for supporting online distance learners,Distance Education, 38:3, 321-335, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2017.1371830

Williamson-Leadley, S., &Pratt, K. (2017). New Zealand teacher educators’ knowledge of and attitudes towards online and blended learning (pp. 724–726). Presented at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from

Ali, A. (2017). The development of the learning exchange schools in New Zealand: An actor network theory and complexity theory analysis. Victoria University, Wellington: New Zealand. Retrieved from 

Barbour, Michael K. and Derek Wenmoth. Virtual Learning as an Impetus for Educational Change: Charting a Way Forward for Learning in New Zealand. CORE Education Research Report. Christchurch, New Zealand: CORE Education, 2013. Retrieved from

Barbour, M. K., Davis, N., & Wenmoth, D. (2013). Networked Schools in New Zealand: Examples from the Virtual Learning Network. In Proceedings of SITE 2013--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 4102–4107). New Orleans, Louisiana, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from

Barbour, M. K. (2011). Primary and secondary e-learning: Examining the process of achieving maturity. Christchurch, New Zealand: Distance Education Association of New Zealand. Retrieved from

Powell, A., & M. K. Barbour. Tracing international differences in online learning development: An examination of government policies in New Zealand's Secondary Schools. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 15.1 (2011): 75–89. Retrieved from

Stevens, K. M. (2011). The distribution of instructional leadership in eLearning clusters: an ecological perspective. Retrieved from

Ministry of Education. (2011). Learning communities online: A support handbook for cluster schools. Wellington: New Zealand. Retrieved from

Roberts, R. (2010). Increasing access for learners – The Virtual Learning Network. In V. Ham & D. Wenmoth (Eds.), e-Learnings: Implementing a national strategy for ICT in education, 1998-2010 (pp. 144-152). Christchurch, New Zealand: CORE Education Ltd.

Roberts, R. (2010) Teaching Under the Microscope - Trends in Online Learning, in Proceedings of ULearn10 - Research Stream. 6 - 8 October, 2010, Christchurch Convention Centre, New Zealand. N. Dabner, S. Bailey, J. Johnson, N. Davis Eds. Available

Roberts, R. (2009). Video conferencing in distance learning: A New Zealand schools’ perspective. Journal of Distance Learning, 13(1), 91–107. 

Bolstad, R., & Lin, M. (2009). Students’ experiences of learning in virtual classrooms. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from

Walsh-Pasco, L. (2005) From teletubbies to teleteacher: Effective practices in video conference teaching. Ministry of Education 2004 eFellow report. Retrieved from

Stevens, K. (1996), The Technological Challenge to the Notion of Rurality in New Zealand Education - Repositioning the Small School. New Zealand Annual Review of Education, 5, 93 - 102. Retrieved from

 Wenmoth, D. (1996). Learning in the distributed classroom. SET Research Information for Teachers, 2(4). 1–4